- related to: John, King of England
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century.
John, byname John Lackland, French Jean sans Terre, (born c. 1166—died October 18/19, 1216, Newark, Nottinghamshire, England), king of England from 1199 to 1216. In a war with the French king Philip II, he lost Normandy and almost all his other possessions in France. In England, after a revolt of the barons, he was forced to seal the Magna ...
- Youth and Struggle For The Crown
- John as King
- Rebellion and Magna Carta
King John was the youngest son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine to survive childhood, being born in 1166. It appears that John was the favored son of Henry, and so the king tried to find him large lands to live from. One grant of several castles, given when John was first to be married (to an Italian heiress), provoked anger among his brothers and started a war between them. Henry II won, but John was given only a little land in the resulting settlement. John was betrothed in 1176 to Isabella, heir to the rich earldom of Gloucester. When John’s older brother Richardbecame heir to his father's throne, Henry II wanted to promote Richard to inheriting England, Normandy, and Anjou, and give John Richard’s current holding of Aquitaine, but Richard refused to concede even this, and another round of family warfare followed. Henry turned down the Kingdom of Jerusalem for both himself and John (who begged to accept it), and then John was lined up for the command of Irelan...
In 1199 Richard died - while on a campaign, killed by a (un)lucky shot, before he could ruin his reputation - and John claimed the throne of England. He was accepted by Normandy, and his mother secured Aquitaine, but his claim to the rest was in trouble. He had to fight and negotiate, and he was challenged by his nephew Arthur. In concluding peace, Arthur kept Brittany (held from John), while John held his lands from the King of France, who was recognized as John’s overlord on the continent, in a manner greater than was ever forced out of John’s father. This would have a crucial impact later in the reign. However, historians who have cast a careful eye over John’s early reign have identified a crisis had already begun: many nobles distrusted John because of his previous actions and doubted whether he would treat them correctly. The marriage to Isabella of Gloucester was dissolved because of alleged consanguinity, and John looked for a new bride. He found one in the form of another I...
While many lords of England had grown discontented with John, only a few had rebelled against him, despite widespread baronial discontent stretching back to before John took the throne. However, in 1214 John returned to France with an army and failed to do any damage except gain a truce, having once more been let down by vacillating barons and the failures of allies. When he returned a minority of barons took the chance to rebel and demand a charter of rights, and when they were able to take London in 1215, John was forced into negotiations as he looked for a solution. These talks took place at Runnymede, and on June 15, 1215, an agreement was made on the Articles of the Barons. Later known as Magna Carta, this became one of the pivotal documents in English, and to some extents western, history. In the short term, Magna Carta lasted just three months before the war between John and the rebels continued. Innocent III supported John, who struck back hard at the baron’s lands, but he r...
Until the revisionism of the twentieth century, John was rarely well regarded by writers and historians. He lost wars and land and is seen as the loser by giving the Magna Carta. But John had a keen, incisive mind, which he applied well to government. Unfortunately, this was negated by an insecurity about people who could challenge him, by his attempts to control barons through fear and debt rather than conciliation, through his lack of magnanimity and insults. It is difficult to be positive about a man who lost generations of royal expansion, which will always be clearly chartable. Maps can make for grim reading. But there's little that merits calling King John 'evil', as a British newspaper did.
John (December 24, 1166– October 19, 1216) was the King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's ...
When John King of England was born on 24 December 1166, in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, his father, Henry II King of England, was 33 and his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of France and England, was 44. He married Isabelle d' Angoulême on 24 August 1200, in Bordeaux, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France.
- Isabelle d' Angoulême, Hawise de Tracy
- Early Life
- Character and Personality
- Religious Policy
John was considered to be his father's favorite son, but he was also the youngest and as such would have no inheritance from his parents despite the prodigious amount of land and properties they both owned. In the evolved state we find our society today, it is hard to imagine arranged marriages of children. Nevertheless, as a child, John was betrothed to Alys, the daughter and heiress of Humbert III of Savoy. As all royal marriages were, this marriage was to be a political alliance. Henry II hoped his son would gain land in the Alps through this marriage. Humbert III promised Savoy, the Piemonte, Maurienne, as well as some other of his possessions in return for this marriage. Alys was sent from the Alps to live in Henry's court, but unfortunately, she died before the marriage could take place. Although it had already been promised to Henry II's son Geoffrey, he promised some of his castles in Normandy to John. This caused trouble between Geoffrey, John and their father. Gerald of Wa...
John married Isabelle of Gloucester in 1189. She was his second cousin as they were both descended from Henry I. Apparently this didn't bother him for about 10 years, but just before his ascension to the throne, he had the marriage annulled on the basis on consanguinity. The probably reason was that she had not born him any children and he needed a wife who could provide heirs. Long before he was crowned king, John had already acquired a reputation for treachery. Sometimes he conspired with his brothers and sometimes against. In 1184, John and Richard both claimed to be the rightful heir to Aquitaine. This was but one of their many disputes. In 1185, John became the ruler of Ireland and the people so despised him, that he was forced to leave the country after eight months. Everyone knows that in the Robin Hood legend, John was a despotic ruler. While Richard was absent, John tried to overthrow William Longchamp, who was Richard's justiciar. As justiciar, he was left in charge when R...
John's reign began in 1199 and lasted until 1216. Upon the death of Richard, John's right to the throne was disputed by some. They believed that his nephew Arthur as son of his older brother Geoffrey, should have been next in line of succession. With the aid of Phillip II of France, Arthur fought for the throne. In May 1200, John signed the Treaty of Le Goulet with Phillip II. The terms of the treaty were that he would give up his claim to overlordship of Normandy in return for Phillip's recognition of him as King of England. He also paid Phillip 20,000 marks sterling to maintain his previous recognition of him as suzerain of Anjou and the Duchy of Brittany. The treaty made John a vassal of Phillip II and required that he answer summons, give support of troops and funds and pay feudal dues to him, which had never been paid before. John's right to the Duchy of Aquitaine was not in dispute since he was the heir to his mother Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine and she was still living. In k...
On July 13, 1205. Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury died. The religious house of Canterbury Cathedral believed that they had the sole right to elect his successor and they preferred a man named Reginald, who was from among them. However, King John had an interest in the choice of successor to this office. Since it was a powerful position, John hoped to influence the choice, and thereby influence the church. His choice was a man named John De Grey. He was the Bishop of Norwich and had been in the king's service and keeper of his seal prior to John's accession to the throne. After John was crowned, De Grey was promoted to Archdeacon of Cleveland in March of 1200 and Archdeacon of Gloucester early in 1200. He served as John's secretary. He had gone on diplomatic missions to France. During the dispute over Hubert's replacement, the chapter of Canterbury sent a delegation to Pope Innocent III trying to settle the dispute. According to some sources, they held a secret election befor...
During his reign the war with Phillip II Augustus of France was renewed. He lost several of his possessions on the continent to Phillip, including Normandy in 1205. While he was involved with the dispute with Pope Innocent III, the Wesh Uprising of 1211 occurred. Prior to 1200 Gwynedd had been divided. Upon the death of his cousin Gruffydd ap Cynan, Gruffydd's son Hywel swore fealty to Llywelyn as his lord and receiving Meirionydd as his portion by 1202. England was forced to acknowledge his rule there. This was partly due to John's strategy of trying to reduce the power of another Wesh ruler, Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of upper Powys. John had given one of his powerful Marcher Barons, William De Broas orders to take as much Welsh territory as he could, but he fell out with him in about 1208. Llewelyn took advantage of the situation and seized both southern Powys and northern Ceredigion. While expanding the territory under his control, he was careful to avoid John, who was his father-in-la...
Jul 04, 2019 · King John Memorial. Birth: Dec. 24, 1167 Oxford City of Oxford Oxfordshire, England Death: Oct. 19, 1216 Newark-on-Trent Newark and Sherwood District Nottinghamshire, England. English Royalty. King of England from 1199 to 1216. John was the son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and youngest brother of Richard "the Lionheart".
- December 24, 1166
John was born to King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, on December 24, 1166, at ‘Beaumont Palace’ in Oxford. John was very young when his mother left for Poitiers and sent John to ‘Fontevrault Abbey,’ where he was assigned a teacher to educate him.
For John this was a serious blow to his ability to rule the country as it absolved the King's subjects from their oaths of allegiance, gave the Barons reason to revolt and allowed the King of France to invade England to remove John from power.
- 1167 / Oxford
- 18 October 1216 / Worcester Cathedral
- Not Cool, Bro. According to historical records of the time, John was known to have several mistresses. While this wasn’t uncommon among kings—shocker, we know—John took it a step too far by choosing noblewomen who were already married for his extramarital romps.
- A Man of Extremes. John’s temperament was said to be mercurial in nature. While he was able to be “witty, generous, and hospitable” at times, he was also said to become so angry that he would “[bite] and [gnaw] his fingers.”
- The Sins of the Sons. For most of his life, John remained loyal to his father when all his brothers rebelled for one reason or another. However, in the later 1180s, when Richard and the King of France warred with Henry II, John sided with Richard for once.
- What a Nice Uncle. Despite his massive losses, John did gain one victory with the capture of his nephew. Prince Arthur was taken prisoner, along with all his generals, at the Battle of Mirebeau.