Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading, is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war. Execution by shooting is a fairly old practice. Some reasons for its use are that firearms are usually readily available and a gunshot to a vital organ, such as the brain or heart, most often will kill relatively quickly. A firing squad is normally composed of several military personnel, all of whom are usually instructed to fire simulta
Execution by shooting is a method of capital punishment in which a person is shot to death by one or more firearms.It is the most common method of execution worldwide, used in about 70 countries, with execution by firing squad being one particular form.
- Military Significance
- Blank Cartridge
- by Country
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- Further Reading
- External Links
The method is often the supreme punishment or disciplinary means employed by military courts for crimes such as cowardice, desertion, espionage, murder, mutiny, or treason. If the condemned prisoner is an ex-officer who is acknowledged to have shown bravery throughout their career, they may be afforded the privilege of giving the order to fire. An example of this is Marshal of France Michel Ney. As a means of insulting the condemned, however, past executions have had them shot in the back, denied blindfolds, or even tied to chairs. When Galeazzo Ciano, son-in-law of Benito Mussolini, and several other former Fascists who voted to remove him from power were executed, they were tied to chairs facing away from their executioners. By some reports, Ciano managed to twist his chair around at the last second to face them.
Sometimes, one or more members of the firing squad may be issued a weapon containing a blank cartridge. In such cases, members of the firing squad are not told beforehand whether they are using live ammunition. This is believed to reinforce the sense of diffusion of responsibility among the firing squad members. Trained soldiers know the difference between a blank round, and a ball round. The blank round, when fired, has no recoil at all, whereas a ball round will produce significant recoil. This is especially significant when bolt action rifles are employed. This diffusion of responsibility makes the execution process more reliable because the members are more likely to aim to kill if they are not entirely blamed for it, or if there is a chance they did not fire the lethal shot. It also allows each member of the firing squad to believe afterwards that he did or did not personally fire a fatal shot—for t...
On 12 October 1915 a British nurse Edith Cavell was executed by a German firing squad at the Tir national shooting range at Schaerbeekafter being convicted of "conveying troops to the enemy" during the First World War. On 1 April 1916 a Belgian woman, Gabrielle Petit, was executed by a German firing squad at Schaerbeek after being convicted of spying for the British Secret Serviceduring World War I. During the Battle of the Bulge in World War II, three captured Ger...
The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 expressly prohibits the usage of capital punishment in peacetime, but authorizes the use of the death penalty for military crimes committed during wartime.War needs to be declared formally, in accordance with international law and article 84, item 19 of the Federal Constitution, with due authorization from the Brazilian Congress. The Brazilian Code of Military Penal Law, in its chapter dealing with wartime offences,...
Following the military overthrow of the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende in 1973, Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochetinitiated a series of war tribunal trials against leftist people around the country. During the first months after his coup against democracy, hundreds of people were killed by firing squads and summary executions.Moore, William, The Thin Yellow Line, Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1974Putkowski and Sykes, Shot at Dawn, Leo Cooper, 2006Hughs-Wilson, John and Corns, Cathryn M, Blindfold and Alone: British Military Executions in the Great War, Cassell, 2005Johnson, David, Executed at Dawn: The British Firing Squads of the First World War, History Press, 2015Death by Firing Squad – slideshow by The First PostNazis Meet the Firing Squad – slideshow by Life magazine
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- First paragraph needs sources
- In North America
- Possible anti-mormon statement
- Link to CNN article
- 'criminal' inappropriate
This article has been mentioned by a media organization: "Injections to replace Utah firing squads". Daily Telegraph online. January 5, 2004.
First paragraphs is full of "usually", "sometimes" and stuff like that referring to certain practices or anecdotes, without a shred of source to back it up. Quote: " thus preventing both disruption of the process by a single member and identification of the member who fired the lethal shot". Who said that? Where? "There is a tradition in some jurisdictions" which jurisdictions? And later on the same paragraph, what does it mean "by some accounts"? This doesn't seem an academic approach to me. Da
Surely "in North America since 1600"? PML. Will clarif to "...English speaking parts of North America..." -- knoodelhed 06:39, 15 Oct 2003 The original source is explicit saying "340 in the US since 1600". I found exactly that same wording on a website. As you point out, that's a logical impossibility since the US didn't exist as a legal entity then. Perhaps they meant "US and predecessor territories" but I have been unable to confirm. Given the confusion, I am going to pull the sentence. I don'
As written, this comes across as an anti-Mormon statement that IMO violates the NPOV policy. Please clarify who believes this before reinserting it into the article. Rossami 21:49, 17 Mar 2004 Many have suggested that its use in Utah is related to a supposed Mormon doctrine of blood atonement, although the Mormon church has strongly denied that this doctrine exists. Until these 'many' are identified, the article has been changed to give Taylor's own reasoning.
The link to a CNN article about firing squads that appears not to be working. The URL is http://www.cnn.com/2004/LAW/03/17/firing.squads.ap/index.html Has anyone got another link, or should it just be removed? Kingal86 13:30, 15 Jul 2004
Many people who weren't criminals have been executed by firing squad, e.g. persons captured in wars or revolutions or killed in wartime reprisals. I've replaced the first use of the word 'criminal' with 'person' and the second with 'victim'.Palmiro 18:21, 21 Sep 2004 I think changing the wording makes this article a bit harder to follow. The vast majority of executions by firing squad are of criminals. In fact, I'm tempted to say all of them. Can you provide evidence of executions by firing squa
Execution by firing squad. On 28 April a group of partisans belonging to the 53ª Brigata Garibaldi Tredici Martiri, the Brigata Camozzi and the Brigate Fiamme Verdi arrived in the village and took the soldiers from the school to a point near the local cemetery. On the way, one of the prisoners, Fernando Caciolo, managed to escape and hide ...
The execution was carried out by a firing squad consisting of paratroop regiment soldiers: Captain Ionel Boeru, Sergeant-Major Georghin Octavian and Dorin-Marian Cirlan, while reportedly hundreds of others also volunteered. The Ceaușescus' hands were tied by four soldiers before the execution.
VIII. Wilkerson v. Utah, 99 U.S. 130 (1879), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court affirmed the judgment of the Supreme Court of the Territory of Utah in stating that execution by firing squad, as prescribed by the Utah territorial statute, was not cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
On 22 March 1917, Nicholas, deposed as a monarch and addressed by the sentries as "Nicholas Romanov", was reunited with his family at the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoe Selo. He was placed under house arrest with his family by the Provisional Government, and the family was surrounded by guards and confined to their quarters. In August 1917, Alexander Kerensky's provisional government, after a failed attempt to send the Romanovs to Britain, which was ruled by Nicholas and Alexandra's mutual first cousin, King George V, evacuated the Romanovs to Tobolsk, Siberia, allegedly to protect them from the rising tide of revolution. There they lived in the former governor's mansion in considerable comfort. After the Bolsheviks came to power in October 1917, the conditions of their imprisonment grew stricter. Talk in the government of putting Nicholas on trial grew more frequent. Nicholas was forbidden to wear epaulettes, and the sentries scrawled lewd drawings on the fence to offend his daughter...
While the Romanovs were having dinner on 16 July 1918, Yurovsky entered the sitting room and informed them that kitchen boy Leonid Sednev was leaving to meet his uncle, Ivan Sednev, who had returned to the city asking to see him; Ivan had already been shot by the Cheka. The family was very upset as Leonid was Alexei's only playmate and he was the fifth member of the imperial entourage to be taken from them, but they were assured by Yurovsky that he would be back soon. Alexandra did not trust Yurovsky, writing in her final diary entry just hours before her death, "whether it's true & we shall see the boy back again!" Leonid was kept in the Popov House that night.Yurovsky saw no reason to kill him and wanted him removed before the execution took place. Around midnight on 17 July, Yurovsky ordered the Romanovs' physician, Eugene Botkin, to awaken the sleeping family and ask them to put on their clothes, under the pretext that the family would be moved to a safe location due to impendin...
Ivan Plotnikov, history professor at the Maksim Gorky Ural State University, has established that the executioners were Yakov Yurovsky, Grigory P. Nikulin, Mikhail A. Medvedev (Kuprin), Peter Ermakov, Stepan Vaganov, Alexey G. Kabanov (former soldier in the tsar's Life Guards and Chekist assigned to the attic machine gun), Pavel Medvedev, V. N. Netrebin, and Y. M. Tselms. Filipp Goloshchyokin, a close associate of Yakov Sverdlov, being a military commissar of the Uralispolkom in Yekaterinburg, however did not actually participate, and two or three guards refused to take part. Pyotr Voykov was given the specific task of arranging for the disposal of their remains, obtaining 570 litres (150 gal) of gasoline and 180 kilograms (400 lbs) of sulphuric acid, the latter from the Yekaterinburg pharmacy. He was a witness but later claimed to have taken part in the murders, looting belongings from a dead grand duchess. After the killings, he was to declare that "The world will never know what...
Early the next morning, when rumors spread in Yekaterinburg about the disposal site, Yurovsky removed the bodies and hid them elsewhere (WikiMiniAtlas56°56′32″N 60°28′24″E / 56.942222°N 60.473333°E / 56.942222; 60.473333). When the vehicle carrying the bodies broke down on the way to the next chosen site, Yurovsky made new arrangements, and buried most of the acid-covered bodies in a pit sealed and concealed with rubble, covered over with railroad ties and then earth (WikiMiniAtlas56°54′41″N 60°29′44″E / 56.9113628°N 60.4954326°E / 56.9113628; 60.4954326) on Koptyaki Road, a cart track (subsequently abandoned) 19 kilometres (12 mi) north of Yekaterinburg. On the afternoon of 19 July, Filipp Goloshchyokin announced at the Opera House on Glavny Prospekt that "Nicholas the bloody" had been shot and his family taken to another place. Sverdlov granted permission for the local paper in Yekaterinburg to publish the "Execution of Nicholas, the Bloody Crowned Murderer – Shot without Bo...Bykov, Pavel Mikhailovich. The Last Days of Tsar Nicholas. New York: International Publishers. 1935.Cross, Anthony (2014). In the Lands of the Romanovs: An Annotated Bibliography of First-hand English-language Accounts of the Russian Empire (1613-1917). Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers. 2014....Massie, Robert K. (2012). The Romanovs: The Final Chapter. Random House. ISBN 9780307873866.McNeal, Shay. The Secret Plot to Save the Tsar: New Truths Behind the Romanov Mystery. HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-06-051755-7, ISBN 978-0-06-051755-7
Plot summary. Based in part on McDougall's experience as an officer with Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, Execution follows the fictional Canadian 2nd Rifles Brigade during the Italian Campaign of 1943. Led by the flamboyant Brigadier Ian Kildare (a modern miles gloriosus, or braggart soldier), the Canadians invade Sicily where they meet with little resistance from the Italian Army, composed mostly of hapless conscripts who want no part in the war.