- related to: joan of arc
Joan was the daughter of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, living in Domrémy, a village which was then in the French part of the Duchy of Bar. Joan's parents owned about 50 acres (20 hectares) of land and her father supplemented his farming work with a minor position as a village official, collecting taxes and heading the local watch.
Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans. In May 1428, Joan made her way to Vaucouleurs, a nearby stronghold of those loyal to Charles. Initially rejected by the local magistrate, Robert de ...
May 26, 2021 · Joan of Arc, national heroine of France, a peasant girl who, believing that she was acting under divine guidance, led the French army in a momentous victory that repulsed an English attempt to conquer France during the Hundred Years’ War. Captured a year afterward, Joan was burned to death as a heretic.
- Who Was Joan of Arc?
- Historical Background
- Early Life
- Meeting with The Dauphin
- The Battle of Orléans
- Capture and Trial
- Retrial and Legacy
A national heroine of France, at age 18 Joan of Arc led the French army to victory over the English at Orléans. Captured a year later, Joan was burned at the stake as a heretic by the English and their French collaborators. She was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint more than 500 years later, on May 16, 1920.
At the time of Joan of Arc’s birth, France was embroiled in a long-running war with England known as the Hundred Years’ War; the dispute began over who would be the heir to the French throne. By the early 15th century, northern France was a lawless frontier of marauding armies.
Joan of Arc, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans," was born in 1412, in Domremy, France. The daughter of poor tenant farmers Jacques d’ Arc and his wife, Isabelle, also known as Romée, Joan learned piety and domestic skills from her mother. Never venturing far from home, Joan took care of the animals and became quite skilled as a seamstress. In 1415, King Henry V of England invaded northern France. After delivering a shattering defeat to French forces, England gained the support of the Burgundians in France. The 1420 Treaty of Troyes, granted the French throne to Henry V as regent for the insane King Charles VI. Henry would then inherit the throne after Charles’s death. However, in 1422, both Henry and Charles died within a couple of months, leaving Henry’s infant son as king of both realms. The French supporters of Charles’ son, the future Charles VII, sensed an opportunity to return the crown to a French monarch. Around this time, Joan of Arc began to have mystical visions encouraging...
In May 1428, Joan’s visions instructed her to go to Vaucouleurs and contact Robert de Baudricourt, the garrison commander and a supporter of Charles. At first, Baudricourt refused Joan’s request, but after seeing that she was gaining the approval of villagers, in 1429 he relented and gave her a horse and an escort of several soldiers. Joan cropped her hair and dressed in men’s clothes for her 11-day journey across enemy territory to Chinon, the site of Charles’s court. At first, Charles was not certain what to make of this peasant girl who asked for an audience and professed she could save France. Joan, however, won him over when she correctly identified him, dressed incognito, in a crowd of members of his court. The two had a private conversation during which it is said Joan revealed details of a solemn prayer Charles had made to God to save France. Still tentative, Charles had prominent theologians examine her. The clergymen reported they found nothing improper with Joan, only pie...
Finally, Charles gave the 17-year-old Joan of Arc armor and a horse and allowed her to accompany the army to Orléans, the site of an English siege. In a series of battles between May 4 and May 7, 1429, the French troops took control of the English fortifications. Joan was wounded but later returned to the front to encourage a final assault. By mid-June, the French had routed the English and, in doing so, their perceived invincibility as well. Although it appeared that Charles had accepted Joan’s mission, he did not display full trust in her judgment or advice. After the victory at Orléans, she kept encouraging him to hurry to Reims to be crowned king, but he and his advisors were more cautious. However, Charles and his procession finally entered Reims, and he was crowned Charles VII on July 18, 1429. Joan was at his side, occupying a visible place at the ceremonies.
In the spring of 1430, King Charles VII ordered Joan to Compiègne to confront the Burgundian assault. During the battle, she was thrown off her horse and left outside the town’s gates. The Burgundians took her captive and held her for several months, negotiating with the English, who saw her as a valuable propaganda prize. Finally, the Burgundians exchanged Joan for 10,000 francs. Charles VII was unsure what to do. Still not convinced of Joan’s divine inspiration, he distanced himself and made no attempt to have her released. Though Joan’s actions were against the English occupation army, she was turned over to church officials who insisted she be tried as a heretic. She was charged with 70 counts, including witchcraft, heresy and dressing like a man. Initially, the trial was held in public, but it went private when Joan bettered her accusers. Between February 21 and March 24, 1431, she was interrogated nearly a dozen times by a tribunal, always keeping her humility and steadfast cl...
On May 29, 1431, the tribunal announced Joan of Arc was guilty of heresy. On the morning of May 30, she was taken to the marketplace in Rouen and burned at the stake, before an estimated crowd of 10,000 people. She was 19 years old. One legend surrounding the event tells of how her heart survived the fire unaffected. Her ashes were gathered and scattered in the Seine.
After Joan's death, the Hundred Years’ War continued for another 22 years. King Charles VII ultimately retained his crown, and he ordered an investigation that in 1456 declared Joan of Arc to be officially innocent of all charges and designated a martyr. She was canonized as a saint on May 16, 1920, and is the patron saint of France. Watch "Joan of Arc: The Virgin Warrior" on HISTORY Vault
St. Joan of Arc is the patroness of soldiers and of France. On January 6, 1412, Joan of Arc was born to pious parents of the French peasant class in the obscure village of Domremy, near the province of Lorraine. At a very early age, she was said to have heard the voices of St. Michael, St. ...
- Jennie Cohen
- Joan’s real name was Jehanne d’Arc, Jehanne Tarc, Jehanne Romée or possibly Jehanne de Vouthon—but she didn’t go by any of these. Joan didn’t hail from a place called Arc, as the typical Anglicization of her father’s surname, d’Arc (sometimes rendered as Darc or Tarc), might imply.
- In modern times, some doctors and scholars have “diagnosed” Joan of Arc with disorders ranging from epilepsy to schizophrenia. Around the age of 12 or 13, Joan of Arc apparently began hearing voices and experiencing visions, which she interpreted as signs from God.
- While commander of the French army, Joan of Arc didn’t participate in active combat. Though remembered as a fearless warrior and considered a heroine of the Hundred Years’ War between France and England, Joan never actually fought in battle or killed an opponent.
- Joan of Arc had a famously volatile temper. Once placed in control of the French army, the teenage peasant didn’t hesitate to chew out prestigious knights for swearing, behaving indecently, skipping Mass or dismissing her battle plans; she even accused her noble patrons of spinelessness in their dealings with the English.
Apr 30, 2018 · Joan of Arc (Jeanne d’Arc in French) was born around 1412 to Jacques d’Arc and Isabelle Romée, a peasant family of farmers in the small village of Domrémy in northeastern France. The most pressing misconception comes down to the mystery of her name. When she was tried in 1431, Joan referred to herself only as “Jehanne la Pucelle ...
- Jade Cuttle
Bruno Dumont's Joan of Arc opens exclusively in Film at Lincoln Center's Virtual Cinema this Friday. Watch: https://www.filmlinc.org/streamTen-year-old Lise ...
- 2 min
- Film at Lincoln Center
- Joan of Arc Before Her Death: Rise of A Warrior
- Resistance at The Show Trial
- Terror and Courage: Joan of Arc’s Death
- Legacy and Legend
Aspects of the triumphs and trials of Joan of Arc resonate to modern ears as pure myth. Unlike the lives of many saints, however, the Maid of Orléans boasts a voluminous legal transcriptas proof of not only her existence — but her remarkable short life. By Joan’s account, she was frightened when, as the 13-year-old daughter of a peasant farmer, she first she encountered Saint Michael. Later on, she would be visited by Saints Margaret, Catherine, and Gabriel. She did not question their reality, nor their authority, even as their commands and prophesies became more and more incredible. First they told her to go to church often. Then they told her that she’d one day raise the siege of Orléans. Women did not fight in battle in 15th-century France, but Joan would indeed come to command an army to restore the rightful king. The Hundred Years’ War, a contest for control of France, had already been grinding on for generations. The English and their allies from Burgundy held the north, inclu...
Burgundy sold Joan of Arc to their allies, the English, who put her before a religious court in the town of Rouen, hoping to kill her once and for all. Contrary to church law, which stipulated that she should have been held by ecclesiastical authorities under the guard of nuns, the teenaged Joan was kept in a civil jail, watched by men whom she had good reason to fear. The trial began in February 1431, and the only question was how long it would take the prejudiced tribunal to find an excuse for execution. England could not let Joan go; if her claims of being guided by the word of God were legitimate, then so was Charles VII. The list of charges included the wearing of men’s clothes, heresy, and witchcraft. Before any proceedings, nuns were sent to examine the woman who called herself La Pucelle— The Maid — for physical evidence that could contradict her claim of virginity. To the court’s frustration, her examiners declared her intact. To the surprise of the magistrates, Joan put up...
Unable to move Joan to recant any of her testimony — which by all accounts was evidence of her extreme piety — on May 24, officials took her to the square where her execution would take place. Faced with the immediacy of the punishment, Joan relented and, although illiterate, signed a confession with assistance. Her sentence was commuted to life in prison, but Joan was again faced with the threat of sexual assault as soon as she returned to captivity. Refusing to submit, Joan returned to wearing men’s clothing, and this relapse to supposed heresy provided the excuse for a death sentence. On May 30, 1431, wearing a small wooden cross and with her eyes fixed upon a large crucifix held aloft by her defender, The Maid of Orléans prayed a simple prayer. She uttered the name of Jesus Christ as the flames scorched her flesh. One person in the crowd moved to throw additional kindling onto the fire, but was stopped where he stood and collapsed, only later to understand his error. At last Joa...
If Charles VII had made any attempts to rescue the 19-year-old mystic who had enabled his coronation, as he would later claim, they were not successful. He did, however, arrange for Joan of Arc’s posthumous exoneration through an exhaustive retrial in 1450. He had much to thank her for, after all. The accession of Charles VII, through the intercession of Joan of Arc, marked the turning point in the Hundred Years’ War. In time, Burgundy would abandon the English to ally with France, and, save the port of Calais, the English lost all possessions on the continent. Even during Joan’s brief public life, her fame spread around Europe, and in the minds of her supporters she was already a holy personage upon her martyrdom. French writer Christine de Pizan composed a narrative poem about the woman warrior in 1429 that captured the public’s admiration of her, before her imprisonment. Incredible stories had it that Joan of Arc had somehow escaped execution, and in the years following her death...
- James Burch
Saint Joan (of Arc), Thomas de Courcelles, Guillaume Manchon, Pierre Cauchon (1907). “Jeanne D'Arc, Maid of Orleans, Deliverer of France: Being the Story of Her Life, Her Achievements, and Her Death, as Attested on Oath and Set Forth in Original Documents”
- related to: joan of arc