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  1. Standard Mandarin Chinese is based on the particular dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan (Republic of China, ROC), as well as one of the four official languages of Singapore .

    • Writing
    • Difference Between Mandarin (Beijing Accent) and Beijing Dialect
    • Examples
    • Related Pages
    • Other Websites

    Mandarin is written with Chinese characters called Hànzì (漢字 or 汉字) which literally means "Han characters". Each Hànzìhas its own pronunciation and meaning. An ordinary dictionary will contain about 10,000 characters. Spoken Mandarin uses very many compound words, words that combine meanings the way English does in such terms as "machine gun," "fire truck," "playground," etc. The Hanzi are ideograms: one character means one idea. The various concepts are derived from the ideograms by combining them. Mandarin can be also written phonetically (that is: written as it is spoken) with the Latin alphabet as you really cannot see the spelling from Hanzi characters. That is called transliteration. The most popular transliteration system is called Pinyin. Some Chinese characters were originally fairly concrete pictures of the things they represent. As time went on, people chose to write simpler versions that are easier to write but do not look so much like the real thing, just as people some...

    Mandarin is defined and designed based on Beijing accent. In China, there are over 600,000 dialects and more accents although they all use Chinese language and characters, but their pronunciation and some expressions are totally different. China must find a standard pronunciation to allow all people to understand each other and communicate. Beijing has been the capital city of China for more than 1,000 years, so China defined Beijing Accent as standard Mandarin. Beijing also has some local dialects that are not included by Mandarin or standard Chinese language yet. But with Beijing being the capital city as well as the political, economic, cultural and education center of China, more and more new Beijing dialects have been or will be accepted as Mandarin or standard Chinese language. The other dialects, such as Shanghainese, Cantonese, Hakka etc., have few opportunities to be included into Mandarin or standard Chinese language or be accepted by the whole of China. The following samp...

    你好 nǐ hǎo -hello
    你好吗?nǐ hǎo ma?-How are you?
    我 wǒ-me, I
    你 nǐ -you
    Pinyin Annotator Archived 2007-08-11 at the Wayback MachineAutomatically adds phonetic symbols (pinyin) on top of Chinese characters.
    Free Chinese Character Input Software Archived 2008-05-07 at the Wayback MachineGoogle Pinyin Input Software
  2. The Chinese Wikipedia ( traditional Chinese: 中 文 維 基 百 科; simplified Chinese: 中 文 维 基 百 科; pinyin: Zhōngwén Wéijī Bǎikē) is the written vernacular Chinese (a form of Mandarin Chinese) edition of Wikipedia. It is run by the Wikimedia Foundation.

  3. Pages in category "Mandarin Chinese" The following 55 pages are in this category, out of 55 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  4. Standard Chinese (simplified Chinese: 普通话; traditional Chinese: 普通話; pinyin: pǔtōnghuà), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca among the speakers of various Mandarin and other varieties of Chinese (Hokkien, Cantonese and beyond).

  5. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › MandarinMandarin - Wikipedia

    Mandarin Chinese, branch of Chinese spoken in northern and southwestern China. Standard Chinese or Modern Standard Mandarin, the official language of China. Taiwanese Mandarin, Standard Chinese as spoken in Taiwan. Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca), the spoken standard of the Ming and Qing dynasties of China.

    • Consonants
    • Glides
    • Syllabic Consonants
    • Vowels
    • Rhotic Coda
    • syllables
    • Tones
    • Tone Sandhi
    • Stress, Rhythm and Intonation
    • References

    The following table shows the consonant sounds of Standard Chinese, transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet. The sounds shown in parentheses are sometimes not analyzed as separate phonemes; for more on these, see § Alveolo-palatal series below. Excluding these, and excluding the glides [j], [ɥ], and [w] (for which see § Glidesbelow), there are 19 consonant phonemes in the inventory. Between pairs of stops or affricates having the same place of articulation and manner of articulation, the primary distinction is not voiced vs. voiceless (as in French or Russian), but unaspirated vs. aspirated (as in Scottish Gaelic or Icelandic). The unaspirated stops and affricates may however become voiced in weak syllables (see § Syllable reduction below). Such pairs are represented in the pinyin system mostly using letters which in Romance languages generally denote voiceless/voiced pairs (for example [p] and [b]), or in Germanic languages often denotes fortis/lenis pairs (for exampl...

    The glides [j], [ɥ], and [w] sound respectively like the y in English yes, the (h)u in French huit, and the w in English we. (Beijing speakers often replace initial [w] with a labiodental [ʋ], except when it is followed by [o].: 25 ) The glides are commonly analyzed not as independent phonemes, but as consonantal allophones of the high vowels: [i̯, y̯, u̯]. This is possible because there is no ambiguity in interpreting a sequence like yao/-iao as /iau/, and potentially problematic sequences such as */iu/do not occur. The glides may occur in initial position in a syllable. This occurs with [ɥ] in the syllables written yu, yuan, yue, and yun in pinyin; with [j] in other syllables written with initial y in pinyin (ya, yi, etc.); and with [w] in syllables written with initial w in pinyin (wa, wu, etc.). When a glide is followed by the vowel of which that glide is considered an allophone, the glide may be regarded as epenthetic (automatically inserted), and not as a separate realization...

    The syllables written in pinyin as zi, ci, si, zhi, chi, shi, ri may be described as having a syllabic consonantinstead of a vowel: 1. [ɹ̩ ~ z̩], a laminal denti-alveolar voiced continuant,[a] in zi, ci, si ([tsɹ̩ tsʰɹ̩ sɹ̩]); 2. [ɻ̩ ~ ʐ̩], an apical retroflex voiced continuant,[a] in zhi, chi, shi, ri ([ʈʂɻ̩ ʈʂʰɻ̩ ʂɻ̩ ɻɻ̩]). Alternatively, the nucleus may be described not as a syllabic consonant, but as a vowel: 1. [ɨ], similar to Russian ы and the vowel in American "roses", in zi, ci, si, zhi, chi, shi, ri ([tsɨ tsʰɨ sɨ ʈʂɨ ʈʂʰɨ ʂɨ ɻɨ]). Phonologically, these syllables may be analyzed as having their own vowel phoneme, /ɨ/. However, it is possible to merge this with the phoneme /i/ (to which it is historically related), since the two are in complementary distribution – provided that the § Alveolo-palatal series is either left unmerged, or is merged with the velars rather than the retroflex or alveolar series. (That is, [t͡ɕi], [t͡sɨ], and [ʈ͡ʂɨ] all exist, but *[ki] and *[kɨ] do n...

    Standard Chinese can be analyzed as having five or two vowel phonemes.[citation needed] /i, u, y/ (which may also be analyzed as underlying glides) are high (close) vowels, /ə/ is mid whereas /a/ is low(open). The precise realization of each vowel depends on its phonetic environment. In particular, the vowel /ə/ has two broad allophones [e] and [o] (corresponding respectively to pinyin e and o in most cases). These sounds can be treated as a single underlying phoneme because they are in complementary distribution. (Apparent counterexamples are provided by certain interjections, such as [ɔ], [ɛ], [jɔ], and [lɔ], but these are normally treated as special cases operating outside the normal phonemic system.[b]) Transcriptions of the vowels' allophones (the ways they are pronounced in particular phonetic environments) differ somewhat between sources. More details about the individual vowel allophones are given in the following table (not including the values that occur with the rhotic co...

    Standard Chinese features syllables that end with a rhotic coda /ɚ/. This feature, known in Chinese as erhua, is particularly characteristic of the Beijing dialect; many other dialects do not use it as much, and some not at all.: 195 It occurs in two cases: 1. In a small number of independent words or morphemes pronounced [ɚ] or [aɚ̯], written in pinyin as er (with some tone), such as 二 èr "two", 耳 ěr "ear", and 儿 (traditional 兒) ér"son". 2. In syllables in which the rhotic coda is added as a suffix to another morpheme. This suffix is represented by the character 儿 [兒] ("son"), to which meaning it is historically related, and in pinyin as r. The suffix combines with the final sound of the syllable, and regular but complex sound changes occur as a result (described in detail under erhua). The r final is pronounced with a relatively lax tongue, and has been described as a "retroflex vowel".: 41 In dialects that do not make use of the rhotic coda, it may be omitted in pronunciation, or...

    Syllables in Standard Chinese have the maximal form CGVXT,: 48 traditionally analysed as an "initial" consonant C, a "final", and a tone T. The final consists of a "medial" G, which may be one of the glides [j, w, ɥ], a vowel V, and a coda X, which may be one of [n, ŋ, ɚ̯, i̯, u̯]. The vowel and coda may also be grouped as the "rhyme",: 16 sometimes spelled "rime". Any of C, G, and X (and V, in some analyses) may be absent. Many of the possible combinations under the above scheme do not actually occur. There are only some 35 final combinations (medial+rime) in actual syllables (see pinyin finals). In all, there are only about 400 different syllables when tone is ignored, and about 1300 when tone is included. This is a far smaller number of distinct syllables than in a language such as English. Since Chinese syllables usually constitute whole words, or at least morphemes, the smallness of the syllable inventory results in large numbers of homophones. However, in Standard Chinese, the...

    Standard Chinese, like all varieties of Chinese, is tonal. This means that in addition to consonants and vowels, the pitch contour of a syllable is used to distinguish words from each other. Many non-native Chinese speakers have difficulties mastering the tones of each character, but correct tonal pronunciation is essential for intelligibility because of the vast number of words in the language that only differ by tone (i.e. are minimal pairs with respect to tone). Statistically, tones are as important as vowels in Standard Chinese.[d]

    Pronunciation also varies with context according to the rules of tone sandhi. Some such changes have been noted above in the descriptions of the individual tones; however, the most prominent phenomena of this kind relate to consecutive sequences of third-tone syllables. There are also a few common words that have variable tone.

    Stress within words (word stress) is not felt strongly by Chinese speakers, although contrastive stress is perceived easily (and functions much the same as in other languages). One of the reasons for the weaker perception of stress in Chinese may be that variations in the fundamental frequency of speech, which in many other languages serve as a cue for stress, are used in Chinese primarily to realize the tones. Nonetheless, there is still a link between stress and pitch – the range of pitch variation (for a given tone) has been observed to be greater on syllables that carry more stress.: 134, 231 As discussed above, weak syllables have neutral tone and are unstressed. Although this property can be contrastive, the contrast is interpreted by some as being primarily one of tone rather than stress. (Some linguists analyze Chinese as lacking word stress entirely.): 134 Apart from this contrast between full and weak syllables, some linguists have also identified differences in levels of...

    Works cited

    1. Chao, Yuen Ren (1948). Mandarin Primer: an Intensive Course in Spoken Chinese. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-73288-9. 2. Chao, Yuen Ren (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese (2nd ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-00219-7. 3. Duanmu, San (2000). The Phonology of Standard Chinese. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 4. ——— (2007). The Phonology of Standard Chinese(2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5. Lin, Yen-Hwei (2007). The Sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Ca...

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