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  1. A diagram showing how dehydration synthesis is used to make a string of DNA. Chromosomes are made of two DNA polymers that stick together via non-covalent hydrogen bonds Chromosomal DNA consists of two DNA polymers that make up a 3-dimensional (3D) structure called a double helix.

  2. A chemical called messenger RNA (mRNA) is made in the nucleus and carries a copy of the DNA base sequence of a specific gene to the cytoplasm. Ribosomes attach to the mRNA and the instructions it ...

  3. May 7, 2022 · Just as with mRNA synthesis, protein synthesis can be divided into three phases: initiation, elongation, and termination. In addition to the mRNA template, many other molecules contribute to the process of translation, such as ribosomes, tRNAs, and various enzymatic factors.

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  5. In the diagram below, mRNAs are being transcribed from several different genes. Although transcription is still in progress, ribosomes have attached each mRNA and begun to translate it into protein. When an mRNA is being translated by multiple ribosomes, the mRNA and ribosomes together are said to form a polyribosome.

  6. The translation of mRNA begins with the formation of a complex on the mRNA (Figure 4). First, three initiation factor proteins (known as IF1, IF2, and IF3) bind to the small subunit of the ribosome.

  7. Oct 27, 2010 · DNA, RNA, replication, translation, and transcription Overview Recall the central dogma of biology: DNA (genetic information in genes) RNA (copies of genes) proteins (functional molecules) DNA structure One monomer unit = deoxyribonucleic acid • composed of a base, a sugar (deoxyribose), and a phosphate

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