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Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward, Prince of Wales, died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent to his grandfather, King Edward III.
Jan 06, 2013 · Richard II, (born January 6, 1367, Bordeaux [France]—died February 1400, Pontefract, Yorkshire [now in West Yorkshire], England), king of England from 1377 to 1399. An ambitious ruler with a lofty conception of the royal office, he was deposed by his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) because of his arbitrary and factional rule.
- First Crisis of 1387-88
- A Fragile Peace
- Second Crisis of 1397–99 and Richard's Deposition
- Richard as A Collector
- Association with Geoffrey Chaucer
- in Literature
- External Links
As Richard began to take over the business of government himself, he sidelined many of the established nobles, such as Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, and Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester. These individuals, not surprisingly, were among those who plotted his downfall. After having exiled the current council, Richard turned to his inner circle of favourites for his council, men such as Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford and Michael de la Pole, whom he created Earl of Suffolk and made chancellor of England. This alienated Parliament because they were not consulted. Subsequently, debate ensued on whether the King had the right to appoint Ministers without Parliamentary consent. It is possible that Richard had a homosexual relationship with de Vere. The nobles he had snubbed formed the head of a group of the disaffected who called themselves the Lords Appellant. The central tenet of their appeal was continued war with Francea...
In the years which followed, Richard became more cautious in his dealings with the barons. After having recovered power in 1389, and having made his promise to the Marcolf chamber for better improvements and a better government, Richard began to improve his relationships with his subjects. In 1390, a tournament was held to celebrate Richard’s coming of age and the apparent new-found harmony since Richard's uncle John of Gaunt's return from Spain. Richard’s team of knights, The Harts, all wore the identical symbol—a white hart—which Richard had chosen. Richard himself favored genteel interests like fine food, insisting spoons be used at his court and inventing the handkerchief. He beautified Westminster Hall with a new ceiling and was a keen and cultured patron of the arts, architecture and literature. His detractors, however, dismissed him as another Edward II, somehow unworthy of his military Plantagenet heritage, given his delicate 'unkingly' tastes. Yet, he had shown personal cou...
In 1397, Richard decided to rid himself of the Lords Appellant who were confining his power, on the pretext of an aristocratic plot. Richard had the Earl of Arundel executed and Warwick exiled, while Gloucester died in captivity. Finally able to exert his autocratic authority over the kingdom, he purged all those he saw as not totally committed to him, fulfilling his own idea of becoming God’schosen prince. Richard was still childless. The heir to the throne was Roger Mortimer the Earl of March, grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, and after his death in 1398, his seven-year-old son Edmund Mortimer. However, Richard was more concerned with Gaunt's son and heir Henry Bolingbroke, whom he banished for ten years on a spurious pretext in 1399. After Gaunt's death, Richard also confiscated Bolingbroke's lands, following the policy of his forebears Henry IIand Edward I in seizing the lands of a powerful noble to centralize power in the crown. At this point Richard left for a campaign in Ireland...
Richard was a keen collector of precious objects. In 1398/1399 they were recorded on a treasure roll, and the treasure roll has survived. It is now held at the British National Archives, Kew, London (reference TNA: PRO, E 101/411/9). The roll lists 1,026 items of treasure, how much each item weighed, and how much it was worth. We learn, for example, that Richard had 11 gold crowns, 157 gold cups, and 320 precious religious objects including bells, chalices and reliquaries. Each item also has a brief description. The only object listed on the roll that certainly survives is a crown now held in the Schatzkammer der Residenz, Munich. The roll describes the crown as "…set with eleven sapphires, thirty-three balas rubies, a hundred and thirty-two pearls, thirty-three diamonds, eight of them imitation gems."
Geoffrey Chaucerserved as a diplomat and Clerk of The King's Works for Richard II. Their relationship encompassed all of Richard's reign, and was apparently fruitful. In the decade before Chaucer's death, Richard granted him several gifts and annuities, including: 20 pounds a year for life in 1394, and 252 gallons of wine per year in 1397. Chaucer died on October 25, 1400. Richard also promoted the cult of Edward the Confessor, whom he liked because he was an English saint but also because he, too, have wanted peace.
Although it would be several centuries before rule by Parliamentevolved, and other kings not least of all Charles I would assert their divine right to rule single-handedly, Richard II’s life demonstrates that already in reality power was shared, and that no king could rule without Parliament. Oddly, Richard was on the one hand sympathetic towards his subjects, who also benefited more from his peace making than did the barons. For the former, war meant higher taxation while for the latter it meant promotion and wealth from the booty and spoils of war. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of Richard’s legacy was the encouragement of English culture. The English language itself owes much to Chaucer, whose work also had political undertones. His readership was mainly aristocratic but he dealt with the lives of the poor as well as the rich, depicting both as leading vivid and real lives, contrary to the common view that peasants—roughly nine-tenths of the population—were little more...
Richard is the main character in Richard II, a play written by William Shakespearearound 1595. King Richard II is also the main antagonist in the anonymous unfinished play, often known as Thomas of Woodstock or Richard II, Part I, whose composition is dated between 1591 and 1595. King Richard is also a character in the novel The Named. King Richard is one of the main characters in The Crucible Trilogy by Sara DouglassHarvey, John Hooper. 1948. The Plantagenets, 1154-1485(Revised Edition 1959). London: Collins Clear Type Press.Saul, Nigel. 1997. Richard II. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300070039Schama, Simon. A History of Britain 1 3000B.C.E.-AD1603 At the Edge of the World? London: BBC Worldwide Ltd, ISBN 0563487143Weir, Alison. 1995. The Wars of the Roses. New York: Ballentine. ISBN 9780345391179
All links retrieved July 28, 2019. 1. Richard II's Treasure– a site about Richard II's treasure from the Institute of Historical Research and Royal Holloway, University of London. The content was written by academics, and contains a bibliography and an image gallery.
King Richard II. by Jessica Brain. At only ten years of age, Richard II assumed the crown, becoming King of England in June 1377 until his untimely and catastrophic demise in 1399. Born in January 1367 in Bordeaux, Richard was the son of Edward, Prince of Wales, more commonly known as the Black Prince. His father’s successful military ...
Aug 05, 2017 · About Richard II of England "Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III.
- "Richard of Bordeaux"
- Bordeaux, Duchy of Aquitaine
- January 06, 1367
Richard II of England From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Richard II (6 January 1367–14 February 1400) was the son of Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan of Kent, "The Fair Maid of Kent". He was born in Bordeaux, and became his father's successor when his elder brother died in infancy.
Apr 14, 2021 · Richard II: The Tragic Life, Love and Death of the King of England. Taking the throne at the early age of ten, Richard II was a 14 th century King of England, whose life was shaped and manipulated by those surrounding him in their constant quest for power. Even his marriage to Anne of Bohemia was a political one.
Richard II (Reign 1377-1399) Richard II became King of England after the death of his grandfather, Edward III. Tragedy struck England when Richard's father, the Black Prince, was struck down with dysentery in 1376, predeceasing his father by one year. Since Black Prince had an heir, the crown did not pass to any of his younger brothers.
Richard II , also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed on 30 September 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black ...
Richard II, King of England was deposed by his first cousin Henry of Bolingbroke who then reigned as Henry IV, King of England. Held in captivity at Pontefract Castle in Pontefract, West Yorkshire, England, Richard is thought to have starved to death and died on or around February 14, 1400. Richard II, King of England
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