Venezuela ( / ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə /; American Spanish: [beneˈswela] ( listen) ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela ),  is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea.
Venezuela, oficialmente República Bolivariana de Venezuela, [n 2] es un país soberano situado en la parte septentrional de América del Sur, constituido por un área continental y por un gran número de islas e islotes en el mar Caribe, cuya capital y mayor aglomeración urbana es la ciudad de Caracas.[n 3] Posee una extensión territorial de 916 445 km². El territorio continental limita al norte con el mar Caribe y el océano Atlántico, al oeste con Colombia, al sur con Brasil y por el ...
Venezuela's modern history was shaped by a number of people, including President Romulo Betancourt, who replaced a military dictatorship with a democracy. By the 1970s, Venezuela had become rich off of oil revenue, but it had problems in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1999 Hugo Chávez became president and tried to remake Venezuela as a socialist state. While popular at first, the economic changes Chavez and the next president, Maduro, passed caused a massive economic depression in the mid-2010s.
The history of Marxism in Venezuela is rather complex, but a brief overview is that communism never sunk roots in Venezuela and its impact on mainstream politics was minimal. López Contreras tried to create a political movement called Cruzadas Cívicas Bolivarianas (Civic Bolivarian Crusades), but it did not pan out, for whatever he did had the taint of his background as a pillar of the Gómez regime.
Venezuela exports rice, corn, fish, tropical fruit, coffee, pork and beef. Venezuela has an estimated USD$14.3 trillion worth of natural resources and is not self-sufficient in most areas of agriculture. Exports accounted for 16.7% of GDP and petroleum products accounted for about 95% of those exports.
Le Venezuela est une puissance énergétique majeure avec des réserves prouvées de 302 milliards de barils de pétrole , ce qui en fait le premier pays au monde dans le classement par réserves de pétrole prouvées devant l'Arabie saoudite, mais près des trois quarts de ces réserves (224 milliards de barils) sont des sables bitumineux , dont l'exploitation est malaisée et très polluante.
The crisis in Venezuela is an ongoing socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez and has worsened in Nicolás Maduro's presidency. It has been marked by hyperinflation, escalating starvation, disease, crime and mortality rates, resulting in massive emigration from the country.