Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate) is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.
- Functions of Vitamin C in The Body
- Vitamin C Deficiency
- Daily Requirement
- Therapeutic Uses
- Vitamin C Advocacy
Through history the need for people to eat fresh plant food to help them get through long siegesor long sea trips was known by some wise people but was often forgotten. The first attempt to prove this idea was by a ship's doctor in the British Royal Navy called James Lind, who at sea in May 1747 gave some crew members lemonjuice as well as their normal ships food, while others continued on normal food alone. The results showed that lemons prevented the disease. Lind wrote up his work and published it in 1753. Lind's work was slow to be noticed. In 1795 the British navy adopted lemon or limejuice as food for sailors. As well as lemons, limes and oranges; sauerkraut, salted cabbage, malt, and soup were tried with different effects. James Cookrelied on sauerkraut to prevent the disease on his long voyages of exploration. It was believed that only humans got scurvy but in 1907, Alex Holst and Theodore Frohlich, two Norwegian chemists found that guinea pigscould also get it if not given...
Citrus fruits (such as lime, Indian gooseberry, lemon, orange, and grapefruit) are good sources of vitamin C. Other foods that are good sources of vitamin C include papaya, broccoli, brussels sprouts, blackcurrants, strawberries, cauliflower, spinach, cantaloupe, sweet peppers, and kiwifruit. The following table is to give an idea of how much vitamin C is in different plant foods. Each individual fruit will vary. The amount of vitamin C in foods of plant origin depends on the kind of plant, t...
Most species of animals synthesise their own vitamin C. It is therefore not a vitamin for them. Synthesis is achieved through a sequence of enzyme driven steps, which convert glucose to ascorbic acid. It is carried out either in the kidneys, in reptiles and birds, or the liver, in mammals and perching birds. The loss of an enzyme concerned with ascorbic acid synthesis has occurred quite frequently in evolution and has affected most fish, many birds; some bats, guinea pigs and most but not all...
Artificial chemical synthesis
Vitamin C is produced from glucose by two main routes. The Reichstein process developed in the 1930s uses a single pre-fermentation followed by a purely chemical route. The more modern Two-Step fermentation process was originally developed in Chinain the 1960s, uses additional fermentation to replace part of the later chemical stages. Both processes yield approximately 60% vitamin C from the glucose feed. In 1934, the Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-La Roche was the first to mass-produc...
In living organisms, ascorbate is an antioxidant, since it protects the body against oxidative stress. It is also a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy when they are dysfunctional.In animals, these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. 1. Vitamin C is needed for the production of collagen in the connective tissue. These fibres are in many places throughout the body; providing firm but flexible structure. Some tissues have a greater percentage of collagen, especially: skin, mucous membranes, teeth, and bones. 2. Vitamin C is required for making of dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline in the nervous system or in the adrenal glands. 3. Vitamin C is also needed to make carnitine, important in the transfer of energy to the cell mitochondria. 4. It is a strong antioxidant. 5. The tissues with greatest percentage of vitamin C...
Lack of ascorbic acid in the daily diet leads to a diseasecalled scurvy, a form of avitaminosisthat is characterized by: 1. Loose teeth 2. Superficial bleeding 3. Fragility of blood vessels 4. Poor healing 5. Compromised immunity 6. Mild anemia.
A healthy person on a balanced western diet should be able to get all the vitamin C needed to prevent the symptoms of scurvy from their daily diet. People who smoke, those under stress and women in pregnancy have a slightly higher requirement. The amount of vitamin C needed to avoid deficiency symptoms and maintain health has been set by variously national agencies as follows: 1. 40 mg per day UK Food Standards Agency 2. 60–95 mg per day US Food and Nutrition Board2001 revision. Some researchers have calculated the amount needed for an adult human to achieve similar blood serum levels as Vitamin C synthesising mammals as follows: 1. 200 mg per day - Linus Pauling Instituteand US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Recommendation. 2. 3000 mg per day - Vitamin C Foundation's recommendation. 3. 6000–12000 mg per day–Thomas Levy, Colorado Integrative Medical Centre recommendation. 4. 6000–18000 mg per day - Linus Pauling's daily recommendation High doses (thousands of mg) may result in...
Vitamin C is needed in the diet to prevent scurvy. It also has a reputation for being useful in the treatment of colds and flu. The evidence to support this idea, however, is ambiguous and the effect may depend on the dose size and dosing regime. The Vitamin C Foundationrecommends 8 grams of vitamin C every half hour to show an effect on cold symptoms.
Fred R. Klenner, a doctor in Reidsville, North Carolina reported in 1949 that poliomyelitis yielded to repeated megadoses of intravenousvitamin C. Nobel Prize winning chemist Linus Pauling began actively promoting vitamin C in the 1960sas a means to greatly improve human health and resistance to disease. A minority of medical and scientific opinion continues to see vitamin C as being a low cost and safe way to treat infectious disease and to deal with a wide range of poisons. A meta-study of the published research claimed that relatively high levels of vitamin C must be maintained in the body for it to function effectively as an antioxidant. Some research shows that there are veterinary benefits of vitamin C as well. One meta-study of the published research examined the effectiveness of ascorbic acid in the treatment of infectious disease and toxins. It was conducted in 2002 by Dr. Thomas Levy, Medical Director of the Colorado Integrative Medical Center in Denver. It claimed that ov...
People also ask
What are the signs of low vitamin C?
What can a vitamin C deficiency cause?
Why is vitamin C called "vitamin C"?
What are the symptoms of a lack of vitamin C?
Colleen Ann Fitzpatrick (born July 20, 1972), better known by her stage name Vitamin C, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actress. She began her career as an Ivory soap baby and child actress, appearing in John Waters' film Hairspray (1988), and continued to appear in minor roles in films before starting the alternative rock band Eve's Plum in 1991.
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant. Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, raw ...
Vitamin C is the self-titled debut studio album by pop singer Vitamin C, released in 1999.The album was a runaway success. Initially failing to chart, it later climbed the Billboard 200 to number 29 and was certified as Gold and later certified Platinum by the RIAA.
- Josh Deutsch, Garry Hughes
- August 31, 1999
- Recommended Levels
- See Also
- External Links
Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption. Because they are not as readily stored, more consistent intake is important. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). Vitamins A and D can accumulate in the body, which can result in dangerous hypervitaminosis. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency due to malabsorption is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis.
Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in raw egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin; it is deactivated by cooking. Pyrithiamine, a synthetic compound, has a molecular structure similar to thiamine, vitamin B1, and inhibits the enzymesthat use thiamine.
For the most part, vitamins are obtained from the diet, but some are acquired by other means: for example, microorganisms in the gut flora produce vitamin K and biotin; and one form of vitamin D is synthesized in skin cells when they are exposed to a certain wavelength of ultraviolet light present in sunlight. Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume: for example, vitamin A is synthesized from beta carotene; and niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan. Vitami...
The body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored in significant amounts, mainly in the liver, and an adult's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months and B12 in some cases for years, before developing a deficiency condition. However, vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide) is not stored in significant amounts, so stores may last only a couple of weeks. For vitamin C, the first symptoms of scurvyin experimental studies of complete vitamin C d...
Some vitamins have documented acute or chronic toxicity at larger intakes, which is referred to as hypertoxicity. The European Union and the governments of several countries have established Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for those vitamins which have documented toxicity (see table). The likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote, but excessive intake (vitamin poisoning) from dietary supplements does occur. In 2016, overdose exposure to all formulations of vitami...
In setting human nutrient guidelines, government organizations do not necessarily agree on amounts needed to avoid deficiency or maximum amounts to avoid the risk of toxicity. For example, for vitamin C, recommended intakes range from 40 mg/day in India to 155 mg/day for the European Union.The table below shows U.S. Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, PRIs for the European Union (same concept as RDAs), followed by what three government organizations deem to be the safe upper intake. RDAs are set higher than EARs to cover people with higher than average needs. Adequate Intakes (AIs) are set when there is not sufficient information to establish EARs and RDAs. Governments are slow to revise information of this nature. For the U.S. values, with the exception of calcium and vitamin D, all of the data date to 1997-2004. EARUS Estimated Average Requirements. RDAUS Recommended Dietary Allowances; higher for adults than for children,...
In those who are otherwise healthy, there is little evidence that supplements have any benefits with respect to cancer or heart disease. Vitamin A and E supplements not only provide no health benefits for generally healthy individuals, but they may increase mortality, though the two large studies that support this conclusion included smokers for whom it was already known that beta-carotene supplements can be harmful.A 2018 meta-analysis found no evidence that intake of vitamin D or calcium for community-dwelling elderly people reduced bone fractures. Europe has regulations that define limits of vitamin (and mineral) dosages for their safe use as dietary supplements. Most vitamins that are sold as dietary supplements are not supposed to exceed a maximum daily dosage referred to as the tolerable upper intake level (UL or Upper Limit). Vitamin products above these regulatory limits are not considered supplements and should be registered as prescription or non-prescription (over-the-cou...
The reason that the set of vitamins skips directly from E to K is that the vitamins corresponding to letters F–J were either reclassified over time, discarded as false leads, or renamed because of their relationship to vitamin B, which became a complex of vitamins. The Danish-speaking scientists who isolated and described vitamin K (in addition to naming it as such) did so because the vitamin is intimately involved in the coagulation of blood following wounding (from the Danish word Koagulation). At the time, most (but not all) of the letters from F through to J were already designated, so the use of the letter K was considered quite reasonable. The table Nomenclature of reclassified vitaminslists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins, as well as the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B-complex. The missing B vitamins were reclassified or determined not to be vitamins. For example, B9 is folic acid and five of the folates are in the range B11...
The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a person may help with night blindness, an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. The advancement of ocean voyages during the Renaissanceresulted in prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common among ships' crews. In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, severe pain, and death. In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname limey for British sailors. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic...
The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine", a compound word coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk when working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine. The name is from vital and amine, meaning amine of life, because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines. This was true of thiamine, but after it was found that other such micronutrients were not amines the word was shortened to vitamin in English.