Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, and the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest in 2007. Helsinki has one of the world's highest urban standards of living. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index.
Helsinki (Swedish: Helsingfors) is the capital city of Finland. Helsinki is the largest city in Finland. 604,380 (31.12.2012) people live in Helsinki, and 1,360,000 live in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Helsinki is in the south of Finland, on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. City is in the Uusimaa region.
- 715.48 km² (276.25 sq mi)
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Helsinki-nimen alkuperä. Keskiajalla, niin sanotun toisen ristiretken jälkeen, ruotsalaisten kolonisaatio ulottui myös Uudellemaalle. 1630-luvulla esitetyn käsityksen mukaan Helsingin seudun siirtolaiset olisivat tulleet 1200-luvun puolivälin tienoilla Keski-Ruotsista Hälsinglandin maakunnasta, ja Vantaanjokea olisi ryhdytty uudisasukkaiden mukaan kutsumaan nimellä Helsingå, mistä ...
Helsinki ist das politische, wirtschaftliche, wissenschaftliche und kulturelle Zentrum Finnlands. Rund sechs Prozent der Einwohner Helsinkis sind schwedischsprachig, offiziell ist die Stadt zweisprachig. Helsinki liegt 80 km nördlich von Tallinn, Estland, 400 km östlich von Stockholm, Schweden, und 300 km westlich von Sankt Petersburg ...
The Declaration of Helsinki is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association. It is widely regarded as the cornerstone document on human research ethics. It is not a legally binding instrument under the international law, but instead draws its authority from the degree to which it has been codified in, or influenced, national or regional legislation and regulations. Its role was described by a Brazilian forum in 2
The Declaration is morally binding on physicians, and that obligation overrides any national or local laws or regulations, if the Declaration provides for a higher standard of protection of humans than the latter. Investigators still have to abide by local legislation but will be held to the higher standard.
The Declaration was originally adopted in June 1964 in Helsinki, Finland, and has since undergone seven revisions and two clarifications, growing considerably in length from 11 paragraphs in 1964 to 37 in the 2013 version. The Declaration is an important document in the history of research ethics as it is the first significant effort of the medical community to regulate research itself, and forms the basis of most subsequent documents. Prior to the 1947 Nuremberg Code there was no generally acce
The controversies and national divisions over the text have continued. The US FDA rejected the 2000 and subsequent revisions, only recognizing the third revision, and in 2006 announced it would eliminate all reference to the Declaration. After consultation, which included expressions of concern, a final rule was issued on April 28, 2008 replacing the Declaration of Helsinki with Good Clinical Practice effective October 2008. This has raised a number of concerns regarding the apparent weakening o
- Ford administration
- Reception and impact
- Heads of state or government
The Helsinki Final Act, also known as Helsinki Accords or Helsinki Declaration was the document signed at the closing meeting of the third phase of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki, Finland, during 30 July – 1 August 1975, following two years of negotiations known as the Helsinki Process. All then-existing European countries as well as United States and Canada, altogether 35 participating states, signed the Final Act in an attempt to improve the...
In the CSCE terminology, there were four groupings or baskets. In the first basket, the "Declaration on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States" enumerated the following 10 points: Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty Refraining from the threat or use of force Inviolability of frontiers Territorial integrity of states Peaceful settlement of disputes Non-intervention in internal affairs Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including th
When president Gerald Ford came into office in August 1974, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe negotiations had been underway for nearly two years. Although the USSR was looking for a rapid resolution, none of the parties were quick to make concessions, particularly on human rights points. Throughout much of the negotiations, US leaders were disengaged and uninterested with the process. In August 1974, National Security Advisor and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger said to For
The document was seen both as a significant step toward reducing Cold War tensions and as a major diplomatic boost for the Soviet Union at the time, due to its clauses on the inviolability of national frontiers and respect for territorial integrity, which were seen to consolidate the USSR's territorial gains in Eastern Europe following the World War II. Considering objections from Canada, Spain, Ireland and other states, the Final Act simply stated that "frontiers" in Europe should be stable but
The "undersigned High Representatives of the participating States" as well as seating at the conference were ordered alphabetically by the countries' short names in French. This also influenced the act's headers consecutively in German, English, Spanish, French, Italian and Russian, which were also the conference's working languages and languages of the act itself.
- related to: Helsinki wikipedia
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