- Computer graphics are visual representations of data displayed on a monitor made on a computer. Computer graphics can be a series of images (most often called video) or a single image.
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Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers. Today, computer graphics is a core technology in digital photography, film, video games, cell phone and computer displays, and many specialized applications.
Computer graphics is a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Although the term often refers to the study of three-dimensional computer graphics, it also encompasses two-dimensional graphics and image processing
Computer graphics can be a series of images (video or animation) or a single image. Computer graphics are very useful. Computer-generated imagery is used for movie making, video games , computer program development, photo editing , scientific modeling , design for advertising and more.
A piece of hardware in a graphics processing unit implementing a specific function (such as triangle setup or texture sampling), without programmable control by shaders. Fresnel According to Fresnel equations, surfaces show more specular reflections when viewed at near-grazing incidence. This effect is often simulated in computer graphics. FXAA
- Differences with other types of computer graphics
3D computer graphics, sometimes called CGI, 3DCG or three-dimensional computer graphics, are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. The resulting images may be stored for viewing later or displayed in real time. Unlike 3D film and similar techniques, the result is two-dimensional, without the illusion of being solid. 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same alg
William Fetter was credited with coining the term computer graphics in 1961 to describe his work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld, which included an animation of a human face and a hand that had originally appeared in the 1971 experimental short A Computer Animated Hand, created by University of Utah students Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke. 3D computer graphics software began appearing for home computers in the late 1970s. The earliest known example is 3D
3D computer graphics creation falls into three basic phases
3D computer graphics software produces computer-generated imagery through 3D modeling and 3D rendering or produces 3D models for analytic, scientific and industrial purposes.
There are a multitude of websites designed to help, educate and support 3D graphic artists. Some are managed by software developers and content providers, but there are standalone sites as well. These communities allow for members to seek advice, post tutorials, provide product reviews or post examples of their own work.
Not all computer graphics that appear 3D are based on a wireframe model. 2D computer graphics with 3D photorealistic effects are often achieved without wireframe modeling and are sometimes indistinguishable in the final form. Some graphic art software includes filters that can be
Some video games use restricted projections of three-dimensional environments, such as isometric graphics or virtual cameras with fixed angles, either as a way to improve performance of the game engine, or for stylistic and gameplay concerns. Such games are said to use pseudo-3D
- Graphics education
- Noted graphic designers
Graphics are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain. In contemporary usage, it includes a pictorial representation of data, as in c manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. Images that are generated by a computer are called computer graphics. Examples are photographs, drawings, line art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, ma
The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods are cave paintings and markings on boulders, bone, ivory, and antlers, which were created during the Upper Palaeolithic period from 40,000–10,000 B.C. or earlier. Many of these were found to record astronomical, seasonal, and chronological details. Some of the earliest graphics and drawings are known to the modern world, from almost 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder seals ...
Graphics are visual elements often used to point readers and viewers to particular information. They are also used to supplement text in an effort to aid readers in their understanding of a particular concept or make the concept more clear or interesting. Popular magazines, such as TIME, Wired and Newsweek, usually contain graphic material in abundance to attract readers, unlike the majority of scholarly journals. In computing, they are used to create a graphical interface for the user; and grap
The majority of schools, colleges, and universities around the world educate students on the subject of graphic design and art. The subject is taught in a broad variety of ways, each course teaching its own distinctive balance of craft skills and intellectual response to the client's needs. Some graphics courses prioritize traditional craft skills—drawing, printmaking, and typography—over modern craft skills. Other courses may place an emphasis on teaching digital craft skills. Still ...
Aldus Manutius designed the first italic type style which is often used in desktop publishing and graphic design. April Greiman is known for her influential poster design. Paul Rand is well known as a design pioneer for designing many popular corporate logos, including the logo for IBM, NeXT and UPS. William Caslon, during the mid-18th century, designed many typefaces, including ITC Founder's Caslon, ITC Founder's Caslon Ornaments, Caslon Graphique, ITC Caslon No. 224, Caslon Old Face and Big Ca
- Light sources
- Lighting interactions
- Illumination models
- Polygonal shading
- Lighting effects
Computer graphics lighting is the collection of techniques used to simulate light in computer graphics scenes. While lighting techniques offer flexibility in the level of detail and functionality available, they also operate at different levels of computational demand and complexity. Graphics artists can choose from a variety of light sources, models, shading techniques, and effects to suit the needs of each application.
Light sources allow for different ways to introduce light into graphics scenes.
In computer graphics, light usually consists of multiple components. The overall effect of a light source on an object is determined by the combination of the object's interactions with these components. The three primary lighting components are diffuse, ambient, and specular.
Lighting models are used to replicate lighting effects in rendered environments where light is approximated based on the physics of light. Without lighting models, replicating lighting effects as they occur in the natural world would require more processing power than is practical for computer graphics. This lighting, or illumination model's purpose is to compute the color of every pixel or the amount of light reflected for different surfaces in the scene. There are two main illumination models,
Polygonal shading is part of the rasterization process where 3D models are drawn as 2D pixel images. Shading applies a lighting model, in conjunction with the geometric attributes of the 3D model, to determine how lighting should be represented at each fragment of the resulting image. The polygons of the 3D model store the geometric values needed for the shading process. This information includes vertex positional values and surface normals, but can contain optional data, such as texture and bum
Caustics are a lighting effect of reflected and refracted light moving through a medium. They appear as ribbons of concentrated light and are often seen when looking at bodies of water or glass. Caustics can be implemented in 3D graphics by blending a caustic texture map with the
Reflection mapping is a technique which uses 2D environment maps to create the effect of reflectivity without using ray tracing. Since the appearances of reflective objects depend on the relative positions of the viewers, the objects, and the surrounding environments, graphics al
Particle systems use collections of small particles to model chaotic, high-complexity events, such as fire, moving liquids, explosions, and moving hair. Particles which make up the complex animation are distributed by an emitter, which gives each particle its properties, such as
The software was well received, and people began contributing to its development. Mesa started off by rendering all 3D computer graphics on the CPU. Despite this, the internal architecture of Mesa was designed to be open for attaching to graphics processor-accelerated 3D rendering.
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