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  1. Irish orthography - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Irish_orthography

    Irish orthography is mainly based on etymological considerations, although a spelling reform in the mid-20th century simplified the relationship between spelling and pronunciation somewhat.

    • Alphabet

      The traditional standard Irish alphabet consists of 18...

    • Vowels

      Sequences of vowels are common in Irish spelling due to the...

  2. Talk:Irish orthography - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Talk:Irish_orthography
    • Thank You
    • Question?
    • Slight Problem with The Pronunciation Guide
    • Spelling Reform Section
    • Use of K
    • What Dialect Are The pronunciations Supposed to Be from?
    • Tengwar Mode For Irish
    • The Word Is
    • Irish Typeface Image
    • Question About Silent Vowels and Broad/Slender Consonants

    Thank you to whomever (plural of 'whomever' is?) wrote this. I have been looking for an explanation of the buailte online and I came upon this. You are all making a contribution to knowledge. Le gach dea-ghuí. Dunlavin Green (talk) 19:22, 5 May 2009 (UTC) 1. As the primary contributor to this page, and on behalf of the other editors of this page, you're welcome and we're glad you like it. (And the word you want is "whoever".) +Angr20:42, 5 May 2009 (UTC) _ _ _ I wanted to give you another thank you for the picture of the "Pay & Display" sign. I looked everywhere trying to figure out why there would occasionally be a 7 stuck in the middle of an Irish sentence. Now I know. Ramseyman (talk) 01:03, 9 November 2011 (UTC)

    Can we have an (rough) english equivalent for all of these? 79.75.64.248 (talk) 00:00, 17 July 2009 (UTC)

    I have only looked at the first few letters I'll admit, but I have already come across a few "errors" in pronunciation. The table shows bhf (broad) pronounced as a w and gives bhfuinneog as an example being pronounced as winn-yohg (obviously in IPA but ...). The problem with this is that it is more typically pronounced as vwinn-yohg in Munster and large parts of Connacht. Aibhneacha is shown here as being pronounced as [avʲnʲəxə], where most will actually pronounce it as [əinʲəxə]. I'm sure a lot of work has gone into these pronunciation tables and I can see there is consistency here, however I would argue that a disclaimer is made to show the variety of Irish being shown. Otherwise we run the risk of showing that sibh (as an example) is pronounced [ʃɪvʲ] everywhere when in actuality it is pronounced as that only in Connacht, Munster and the caighdeán but as [ʃɪːw], [ʃʲwː] or [ʃiːw] in Ulster and parts of North Mayo. --MacTire02 (talk) 21:56, 4 August 2009 (UTC) 1. I've never seen a...

    The new Spelling reform section says, "The Irish Texts Society's 1904 Irish–English bilingual dictionary by Patrick S. Dinneen used traditional spellings." But even Dinneen's dictionary uses some reformed spellings, such as sp and sc instead of sb and sg, -as instead of -us in words like solas, consistent use of éa instead of eu, and eo rather than eó to mark [o:] after a slender consonant. So while many early 20th century texts spell the word for "story" sgeul and the word for "knowledge" eólus, Dinneen spells them scéal and eolas as they're spelled today. —Angr (talk) 15:50, 10 April 2011 (UTC)

    Though the Irish for kilometre is ciliméadar, it is always abbreviated as "km" on road signs. Can anyone say why, if there is no letter K? The article says - "k is the only letter not to be listed by Ó Dónaill." Is it bad Irish on the road signs, or did they think nobody would notice, or does nobody care anyway??86.42.192.214 (talk) 15:42, 29 May 2011 (UTC) 1. km is an international symbol for the kilometre, it's the same in all languages. CodeCat (talk) 15:51, 29 May 2011 (UTC) 1. 1.1. Apart from being an international symbol and used in most (though not all) languages, using "cm" for "ciliméadar" would also be confusing as we also have "ceintiméadar" for centimetre. ‣Mac Tíre Cowag16:07, 29 May 2011 (UTC)

    Most examples are given with only one pronunciation, and there's no mention of whether it's supposed to be the “standard” one, the most common one, or the one from a particular dialect. For example, it says ao is pronounced /eː/ in the word aon /eːn̪ˠ/ "one" and its derivatives – well, Foclóir Póca says aon is /i:n/, and there are dialects where ao is normally /eː/, so a statement like that only applies to some dialects, and the article gives no clue as to which ones. Same applies to most of the exceptions (ceann is /canˠ/ according to Foclóir Póca and /caunˠ/ in Munster, beag is /bʲɛɡ/ in FP and (IIRC) /bʲaɡ/ in Ulster, ...) ― A. di M.​plé​dréachtaí23:14, 12 July 2011 (UTC) 1. When I started this page, the examples were in a vaguely Connemara/Aran Islands-ish sort of accent, but perhaps not terribly consistent. Since then I've been meaning to come back and represent all the dialects more consistently and with sources, but have been daunted by the enormity of the task. You can see a...

    In the forthcoming edition of The Hobbit in Irish a Tengwar mode for Irish will be published. Would a description of this be out of scope for the present article? -- Evertype·✆12:18, 16 March 2012 (UTC) 1. I'd think so. In fact, I doubt it would meet the general notability guideline for inclusion in Wikipedia, unless it "has received significant coverage in reliable sources that are independent of the subject", i.e. if it's discussed by people other than the people responsible for creating it and for the translation. Angr (talk) 12:27, 16 March 2012 (UTC)

    I don't speak Irish, I've just read a few things about it. I wonder why the word is is pronounced with an [s] instead of [ʃ]. Shouldn't it be [ɪʃ], since i is a slender consonant? - So is it an exception? Are there more? And could they be listed? Thanks. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 82.83.205.123 (talk) 17:39, 13 May 2013 (UTC) 1. Yes, is (both the copula and the conjunction, which is a contraction of agus) is pronounced with [sˠ] despite being next to i. It's an exception. The exception to the exception is that the copula (but not the conjunction) is pronounced [ɪʃ], or just [ʃ], before é, í, iad. So is é a dúirt seo "He's the one who said this" is pronounced [ʃeː dˠuːɾʲtʲ ʃɔ], but is é ina shuí anseo "while he was sitting here" (literally "and him sitting here") is pronounced [ɪsˠ eː ɪnˠə hiː nʃɔ]. Angr (talk) 19:05, 13 May 2013 (UTC)

    This is a low-quality image. The edges of the letters are not smooth, and the letter "names" use some sort of quasi-phonetic spelling. It looks it was put together in an old version of Microsoft Paint. It would be nice if someone redid it. I was thinking particularly of User:Evertype, but if someone else has the necessary typeface (I don't), by all means go ahead and do it. (suoı̣ʇnqı̣ɹʇuoɔ · ʞlɐʇ) nɯnuı̣ɥԀ21:16, 2 July 2014 (UTC) I have original sources! Your typeface is excellent! (for most interested Wikipedia Readers);A very good Bulgarian friend of mine, has original Irish type face construction algorithms...I, myself, can read the original typeface, (re Dineen 1927).Михал Орела 17:13, 14 August 2014 (UTC) — Preceding unsigned comment added by MihalOrela (talk • contribs)

    Have the silent vowels that indicate broad/slender been inserted to indicate this, or were they originally really there, affecting the consonants, and have these vowels subsequently been lost? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 82.139.82.82 (talk) 21:41, 7 July 2015 (UTC) 1. It's a mixture of both, but mostly they were inserted to indicate slenderness. This was done already in Old Irish, but the rules were different then and may not always have been consistent. Old Irish didn't require consonants to be surrounded by the same type of vowel on both sides. Instead, the slenderness was normally implied by the following vowel only. A slenderising silent "i" was added before a consonant to show slenderness when a slenderising vowel did not already follow it, which was primarily at the end of a word but also in cases where syllables containing "e" or "i" had disappeared, leaving the slenderness as an after-effect. Most importantly, word-final consonants that were preceded by "e" were ge...

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    What is the origin of the Irish orthography?

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  4. Irish orthography — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Irish_orthography

    Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD. Prior to that, Primitive Irish was written in Ogham. Irish orthography is mainly based on etymological considerations, although a spelling reform in the mid-20th century simplified the relationship between spelling and pronunciation somewhat.

  5. Talk:Irish orthography/Archive 1 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Talk:Irish_orthography

    Learning Irish, which, uh, is not actually about learning the Irish language in general but about learning Cois Fhairrge Irish from Co Galway. I think it unwise to have an article on Irish orthography and pronunciation and simply focus on one dialect as being the default form of the language.

  6. Irish language - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Irish_language

    Irish ( Gaeilge in Standard Irish ), sometimes controversially known as Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is a part of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated on the island of Ireland and was the population's first language until the late 18th century.

  7. Comparison of Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Comparison_of_Irish,_Manx

    Eclipsis is shown in Irish orthography but not in Scottish Gaelic as it is conditioned by the actual environment. For example, this means that phrases like Standard Irish ag an doras , standard Scottish Gaelic aig an doras † , Manx ec y(n) dorrys is pronounced as follows in different parts of the Gaelic speaking world:

  8. Irish Orthography | A miscellany of topics | Our Irish Heritage

    www.ouririshheritage.org › irish-orthography
    • Translations
    • Dictionaries
    • Old Spellings
    • Election / Constitution
    • Reviews
    • Grammar
    • Dialects
    • Current Irish

    The first Irish translation of the New Testament begun by Nicholas Walsh, Bishop of Ossory until his demise in 1587; it was continued by his assistant John Kearney with Dr. Nehemiah Donnellan, Archbishop of Tuam, this was finally completed by Uiliam Ó ‘Domhnaill (who had succeeded Bishop Donnellan) then published during 1602. The work of translating the Old Testament was undertaken by William Bedel: it was not published until 1680 by Narcissus March, Archbishop of Dublin. John Richardson published a revised edition of the 1606 Common Prayer Book in 1712. [x]

    Several dictionaries were published over the years: from ‘The Royal Dictionary’ of 1699 & 1729 by Abel Boyer to The English – Irish Dictionary of Begley & Mc Curtain in 1732. John O ‘Brien published ‘Foclóir Gaoidhilge – sags – béarla Or’ in 1768. An English – Irish edition of 1814 by Thaddaeus Connellan was produced. During1855 an English – Irish edition by Daniel Foley was printed. Edward O’ Reilly’s Irish – English 1864 edition was later revised by John O ‘Donovan. [xi] The Irish Texts Society’s 1904 Irish – English Bilingual Dictionary by Patrick S Dineen used traditional spellings. [xii] Timothy O ‘Neill Lane published Foclói béarla – Gaedglige during 1917. An English – Irish phrase Dictionary was published by Lambert Mc Kenna in 1922. [xiii] Following the creation of the Irish Free State during 1922 all Acts of the Oireachtas included Dineen’s spellings plus were translated into Irish. These were followed by several simplifications over the years. [xiv]

    The following are some old spellings criticized by T. F. O ‘Reilly with their simplifications from old Spelling to New Spelling: Beirbhiughadh toBeiriú, Imthighthe toImithe, Faghbháil toFáil, Urradhas to Urrús also Filidheacht toFilíocht. His publication ‘Irish Dialects past & present; with Chapters on Scottish & Manx’, 1932 Brown & Nolan Dublin was expanded in 1947, then republished during 1957 combined with the standard grammar of 1953 It attracted initial criticism as unhistorical or artificial; several spellings failed to represent the pronunciation of many dialects, while others preserved letters not pronounced in any dialect. Its status was reinforced by use in the civil service also as a guide for Tomás de Bhaldraithe‘s 1959 English–Irish dictionary. During the early 1940’s Seamus Dalton issued his own guidelines re standardization of Irish spelling & grammar. [xv]

    Eamon de Valera, President of the Executive Council from the 1932 Election insisted that policy reverted to older spelling which was then used for the 1937 Constitution. During 1941 he decided to publish a ‘popular’ edition of the Constitution. De Valera also established a committee of experts that failed to agree to recommendations; instead the Oireachtas’s own translation service prepared a booklet; ‘Litriú na Gaeilge: lámhleabhair an Chaighdeáin Oifigiüil’ which was published during 1945. [xvi]

    The Oireachtas’s own translation in 1945 printed a booklet ‘Litiúna Gailge: Lámhleabhar an Chaighdeain Oifigiúil.’ (Published in Early Modern History1500-1700 issue 5 Sept – Oct 2012 Vol 20.) This booklet was expanded during 1947 then republished as ‘An Caighdheán Oifigiúi’ in 1959, combined with a standard graminer of 1953. During 1959 Tomas de bHaldraille’s English – Irish Dictionary was mandated within the Irish Civil Service. [xvii] This publication ‘An Introduction to Old Irish (Introduction to Older Languages)’ 1975 Lehmann R. P. M. & Lehmann W. P. was intended to enable students to understand the Old Irish writings plus spellings. [xviii] During 1977 Niall Ó ‘Dónaill’s 1977 Irish – English was mandated into the Irish Civil Service. [xix] A review of the written standard, including spelling, was initiated during 2010, with a view to improving “simplicity, internal consistency, and logic.” [xx] An updated publication of ‘Caishdean Oifiguil’ occurred during 2017. [xxi]

    The grammar of early Modern Irish was initially presented in a series of grammatical Tracts. These were edited & published by Osborn Bergin as a supplement to Éiru between 1916 to 1955. [xxii] Irish has a case system like Latin or German. It has four cases showing functions of nouns or pronouns in a sentence. In phonology it exhibits initial sandi in which the first consonant of a word is modified according to the prehistoric finial sound of the previous word in the phrase, eg An tobar ‘the wall’ or Mo thobar ‘My wall.’ [xxiii]

    Presently there are three main dialects in the Irish language: Munster (An Mhumháin), Connnacht (Connachta) also Ulster (Ulaidh). The Munster dialect is spoken mainly in Kerry (Ciarraí) plus Muskerry (Múscraí) in the western part of Cork (Contae Chorcai). The Connacht dialect is spoken mainly in Connamara (Conamara), the Aran Islands (Oiléain) also in Tourmakeady (Thur Mhic Éadaigh) in Co. Mayo (Maigh Eo). The Ulster dialect is spoken in the Rosses (na Rosa) area while in Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair) they speak mainly in the Ulster dialect. [xxiv]

    In Modern Irish there are just a few sounds not found in some dialects of English. It has an unique spelling system. Spoken Irish has only a few sounds not found in some dialects of English. Although it may appear complicated it is in fact more regular that English spelling. Except for a few common words, that have an unstressed prefix – all words are sharply accented on the final syllable. [xxv] Gaelic Irish Type today with the buailte are rarely used except for when ‘traditional’ type is required, ie as the Motto of UCD, on Coat of Arms or as symbol of Óglaigh na Éireann. [xxvi] Irish Language has experienced a revival with a radio service, a television service plus new publications. There has been a growth in Irish – medium education. [xxvii] The Geltacht areas, several Gaelscoileanna throughout Ireland, official Language Act 2003, RTE, TG4, Radio na Gaeltachta also Foinse are the modern ways of protecting the Irish Language. [xxviii]

  9. List of Latin-script digraphs - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Rh_(digraph)

    In Irish orthography, ea represents /a/ between a slender and a broad consonant. In Old English, it represents the diphthong /æɑ̯/. Ea is also the transliteration of the ᛠ rune of the Anglo-Frisian Futhorc. eá is used in Irish orthography for /aː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.

  10. irish orthography : definition of irish orthography and ...

    dictionary.sensagent.com › irish orthography › en-en
    • Alphabet
    • Consonants
    • Vowels
    • Epenthetic Vowel
    • Special pronunciations in Verb Forms
    • Diacritics
    • Punctuation
    • Capitalisation
    • Abbreviations
    • Spelling Reform

    The alphabet now used for writing the Irish language consists of the following letters of the Latin script, whether written in Roman hand or Gaelic hand: 1. a á b c d e é f g h i í l m n o ó p r s t u ú; The acute accent over the vowels is ignored for purposes of alphabetization. Modern loanwords also make use of j k q v w x y z. Of these, v is the most common. It occurs in a small number of words of native origin in the language such as vácarnach, vác and vrác, all of which are onomatopoeic. It also occurs in a number of alternative colloquial forms such as víog instead of bíog and vís instead of bís as cited in Niall Ó Dónaill's Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla (Irish–English Dictionary). It is also the only nontraditional letter used to write foreign names and words adapted to the Irish language (for example, Switzerland, or Helvetia, is Gaelicised as An Eilvéis; Azerbaijan, in contrast, is written An Asarbaiseáin rather than *An Azarbaijáin). The letters j, q, w, x, y and z are used prima...

    The consonant letters generally correspond to the consonant phonemes as shown in this table. See Irish phonology for an explanation of the symbols used and Irish initial mutations for an explanation of eclipsis. In most cases, consonants are "broad" (velarised) when the nearest vowel letter is one of a, o, u and "slender" (palatalised) when the nearest vowel letter is one of e, i.

    In spite of the complex chart below, pronunciation of vowels in Irish is mostly predictable from a few simple rules: 1. Fadavowels (á, é, í, ó, ú) are always pronounced. 2. Vowels on either side of a fada vowel are silent. They are present only to satisfy the "caol le caol agus leathan le leathan" ("slender with slender and broad with broad") rule. This rule states that e or i (slender) and a or o or u(broad) vowels must be of the same type on both sides of any consonant, to unambiguously determine the consonant's own broad vs slender pronunciation. 3. Between a consonant and a broad vowel, e and i are silent clc-rule vowels: 3.1. fear, bean, leabhar, seomra-> silent e 3.2. cailin, uncail, abhainn, aimsir, bainne-> silent i The following chart indicates how written vowels are generallypronounced. Each dialect has certain divergences from this general scheme.

    In a sequence of short vowel + /l, r, n/ + labial or velar consonant an unwritten /ə/ gets pronounced between the /l, r, n/and the following consonant: 1. gorm /ˈɡɔɾˠəmˠ/"blue" 2. dearg /ˈdʲaɾˠəɡ/"red" 3. dorcha /ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə/"dark" 4. ainm /ˈanʲəmʲ/"name" 5. seanchaí /ˈʃan̪ˠəxiː/"storyteller" 6. leanbh /ˈlʲan̪ˠəw/"child" 7. colm /ˈkɔl̪ˠəm/"dove" There is no epenthesis before voiceless stops or after long vowels and diphthongs: 1. corp /kɔɾˠpˠ/"body" 2. olc /ɔl̪ˠk/"bad" 3. téarma /tʲeːɾˠmˠə/"term" 4. dualgas /ˈd̪ˠuəl̪ˠɡəsˠ/"duty"

    In verbforms, some letters and letter combinations are pronounced differently from elsewhere. In the imperfect, conditional, and imperative, -dh is pronounced /tʲ/ before a pronoun beginning with s-: 1. mholadh sé /ˈwɔl̪ˠətʲ ʃeː/"he used to praise" 2. bheannódh sibh /ˈvʲan̪ˠoːtʲ ʃɪvʲ/"you (pl.) would bless" 3. osclaíodh sí /ˈɔsˠkl̪ˠiːtʲ ʃiː/"let her open" Otherwise it is pronounced /x/: 1. mholadh an buachaill /ˈwɔl̪ˠəx ə ˈbˠuəxəlʲ/"the boy used to praise" 2. bheannódh na cailíní /ˈvʲanoːx n̪ˠə ˈkalʲiːnʲiː/"the girls would bless" 3. osclaíodh Siobhán /ˈɔsˠkl̪ˠiːx ˈʃʊwaːn̪ˠ/"let Siobhán open" In the preterite impersonal, -dh is pronounced /w/: 1. moladh é /ˈmˠɔl̪ˠəw eː/"he was praised" 2. beannaíodh na cailíní /ˈbʲan̪iːw nə ˈkalʲiːnʲiː/"the girls were blessed" -(a)idh and -(a)igh are pronounced /ə/ before a pronoun, otherwise /iː/: 1. molfaidh mé /ˈmˠɔl̪ˠhə mʲeː/"I will praise" 2. molfaidh Seán /ˈmˠɔl̪ˠhiː ʃaːn/"Seán will praise" 3. bheannaigh mé /ˈvʲan̪ˠə mʲeː/"I blessed" 4. bheanna...

    Irish spelling makes use today of only one diacritic, and formerly used a second. The acute accent (Irish: síneadh fada "long sign") is used to indicate a long vowel, as in bád /bˠaːd̪ˠ/"boat". However, there are some circumstances under which a long vowel is not indicated by an acute accent, namely: 1. before rd, rl, rn, rr, for example ard /aːɾˠd̪ˠ/ "high", eirleach /ˈeːɾˠlʲəx/ "destruction", dorn /d̪ˠoːɾˠn̪ˠ/"fist" 2. in the groups ae, ao, eo, for example aerach /ˈeːɾˠəx/ "gay", maol /mˠiːl̪ˠ/ "bare", ceol /coːl̪ˠ/"music" 3. in the groups omh(a) and umh(a), for example comharsa /ˈkoːɾˠsˠə/, Mumhain /mˠuːnʲ/"Munster" 4. long /iː/ and /uː/ before /aː/ or /oː/, e.g. fiáin /ˈfʲiːaːnʲ/ "wild", ruóg /ˈɾˠuːoːɡ/"twine" The overdot (Irish: ponc séimhithe "dot of lenition", buailte "struck", or simply séimhiú, "lenition") was formerly used, especially in Gaelic script, to indicate the lenited version of a consonant; currently a following letter h is used for this purpose. Thus the letters...

    In general, punctuation marks are used in Irish much as they are in English. One punctuation mark worth noting is the Tironian et ⁊ which is generally used to abbreviate the word agus "and", much as the ampersand is generally used to abbreviate the word andin English. The hyphen (Irish: fleiscín) is used in Irish after the letters t and n when these are attached to a vowel-initial word through the rules of the initial mutations, as in an t-arán "the bread", a n-iníon "their daughter". However, the hyphen is not used when the vowel is capitalised, as in an tAlbanach "the Scotsman", Ár nAthair "Our Father". No hyphen is used with the h that is attached to a vowel-initial word: a hiníon"her daughter". The hyphen is also used in compoundwords under certain circumstances: 1. between two vowels, e.g. mí-ádh"misfortune" 2. between two similar consonants, e.g. droch-chaint "bad language", grod-díol"prompt payment" 3. in a three-part compound, e.g. buan-chomhchoiste"permanent joint committee...

    Capitalisation rules are similar to English. However, a prefix letter remains in lowercase when the base initial is capitalised (an tSín "China"). For text written in all caps, the prefix letter is often kept in lowercase, or small caps (STAIR NA HÉIREANN "THE HISTORY OF IRELAND").[2] An initial capital is used for:[3] 1. The first word of a sentence 2. Personal names and placenames, though not the words an, na, de[4] (Micheál Ó Murchú "Michael Murphy"; Máire Mhac an tSaoi "Mary McEntee" de Búrca "Burke"; Sliabh na mBan "Slievenamon") 3. Adjectives from personal names and placenames; though not for adjectives used in extended senses (bia Iodálach "Italian food", but cló iodálach"italic type") 4. Names of months, feast-days, and languages (Meán Fómhair "September"; Oíche Nollag "Christmas Eve"; Fraincis"French") 5. Names of days of the week (an Luan "Monday"), as well as Dé (Dé Luain"on Monday") 6. Definite titles[5] 7. Names of God; though not pronouns referring to God[6]

    Irish has a number of abbreviations, most of which, like lch. for leathanach ("p."/"page") and m.sh. for mar shampla ("e.g."/"for example") are straightforward. Two that may require explanation are .i. (which begins and ends with a full stop) for eadhon ("i.e."/"that is") and ⁊rl. or srl. for agus araile("etc."/"and so forth").

    The literary Classical Irish which survived till the 17th century was already archaic and its spelling reflected that; Theobald Stapleton's 1639 catechism was a first attempt at simplification.[7] The classical spelling represented a dialect continuum including distinctions which had been lost in all surviving dialects by the Gaelic revival of the late 19th century. The issue of simplifying spelling, linked to the use of Roman or Gaelic type, was controversial in the early decades of the 20th century.[8] The Irish Texts Society's 1904 Irish–English bilingual dictionary by Patrick S. Dinneen used traditional spellings.[8] After the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, all Acts of the Oireachtas were translated into Irish, initially using Dinneen's spellings, with a list of simplifications accruing over the years.[8] When Éamon de Valera became President of the Executive Council after the 1932 election, policy reverted to older spellings, which were used in the enrolled text of t...

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