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  1. The mesolimbic pathway and a specific set of the pathway's output neurons (e.g. D1-type medium spiny neurons within the nucleus accumbens) play a central role in the neurobiology of addiction. Drug addiction is an illness caused by habitual substance use that induces chemical changes in the brain's circuitry.

  2. The main function of the nigrostriatal pathway is to influence voluntary movement through basal ganglia motor loops. Along with the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways, the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway can also influence other brain functions, including cognition, reward, and addiction.

  3. Sep 27, 2022 · 性交可由不同的詞語來代稱,包括交配(copulation)、交媾(coitus)、交尾(coition)、性交合(intercourse)。交媾的英語「coitus」是由拉丁語「coitio」或「coire」衍生而來,其意思為「一同到達或一同參與」,在拉丁語中其泛指各式各樣的性活動,但一般情況下它所指的是陰莖-陰道交 。

  4. Pharmacodynamics. Dopamine is a natural catecholamine formed by the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). It is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system, especially in the nigrostriatal tract, and in a few peripheral sympathetic nerves.

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