Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called the Wise (French: le Sage; Latin: Sapiens), was King of France from 1364 to his death in 1380. His reign marked an early high point for France during the Hundred Years' War , with his armies recovering much of the territory held by the English, and successfully reversed the military losses of his predecessors.
Sep 12, 2022 · Charles V, byname Charles The Wise, French Charles Le Sage, (born Jan. 21, 1338, Vincennes, Fr.—died Sept. 16, 1380, Nogent-sur-Marne), king of France from 1364 who led the country in a miraculous recovery from the devastation of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453), reversing the disastrous Anglo-French settlement of 1360.
Charles V of France, also known as “Charles V, the Wise,” was the king of France who reigned from 1364 until his death in 1380. He is best remembered for rebuilding the nation following the losses incurred during the Hundred Years’ War and the catastrophic Anglo-French settlement of 1360. Having received the province of Dauphiné in 1349, Charles V of France held the title of Dauphin until his accession to the throne.
Charles V, unable to prevent Pope Gregory XI from returning to Rome in 1376, chose to support the candidacy of Robert of Geneva against the Italian Urban VI in 1378, but only Scotland and Naples followed the French lead. A schismatic pope could no longer help France much; rival popes could hardly promote peace between their political supporters. Although he had reestablished the political unity of France, Charles V left an uncertain future.
- The Regency and The Bourgeois Rising
- The Treaty of Bretigny
- King of France
- The War Resumes
- Papal Schism
King Jean was a brave warrior but a poor ruler who alienated his nobles through arbitrary justice and the elevation of associates considered unworthy. After a three-year break, the war resumed in 1355, with Edward, The Black Prince, leading an English-Gascon army in a violent raid across southwestern France. After checking an English incursion into...
Jean's capture gave the English the edge in peace negotiations. The king signed a treaty in 1359 that would have ceded most of western France to England and imposed a ruinous ransom of 4 million ecus on the country. The Dauphin (backed by his councilors and the Estates-General) rejected the treaty, and King Edward used this as an excuse to invade F...
Charles was crowned King of France in 1364 at the cathedral at Reims, France. The new king was highly intelligent but close-mouthed and secretive, with sharp eyes, a long nose, and a pale, grave manner. He suffered from gout in the right hand and an abscess in his left arm, possibly a side-effect of an attempted poisoning in 1359. Doctors were able...
The Black Prince's rule in Gascony became increasingly autocratic, and when Pedro defaulted on his debts after Najera, the Prince taxed his subjects in Guienne to make up the difference. Nobles from Gascony petitioned Charles for aid, and when the Black Prince refused to answer a summons to Paris to answer the charges, Charles declared him disloyal...
In 1376, Pope Gregory XI, fearing a loss of the Papal States, decided to move his court back to Rome after nearly 70 years in Avignon. Charles, hoping to maintain French influence over the papacy, tried to persuade Pope Gregory XI to remain in France, arguing that "Rome is wherever the Pope happens to be." Gregory refused. The Pope died in March 13...
Charles's last years were spent in the consolidation of Normandy (and the neutralization of Charles of Navarre). Peace negotiations with the English continued unsuccessfully. The taxes he had levied to support his wars against the English had caused deep disaffection among the working classes. The abscess on the king's left arm dried up in early Se...
While he was in many ways a typical medieval king, Charles V has been praised by historians for his willingness to ignore the chivalric conventions of the time to achieve his aims, which led to the recovery of the territories lost at Bretigny. His successes, however, proved short-lived. Charles's brothers, who dominated the regency council that rul...Jeanne (1357–1360)Jean (1359–1364)Bonne (1360–1360)Jean (1366–1366)Goubert, Pierre. The Course of French History. New York: F. Watts. 1988. ISBN 0531150542Price, Roger. A Concise History of France. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University. 2005. ISBN 052160656XTuchman, Barbara Wertheim. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Knopf. 1978. ISBN 0394400267
Charles V of France, also known as "Charles V, the Wise," was the king of France who reigned from 1364 until his death in 1380. He is best remembered for rebuilding the nation following the losses incurred during the Hundred Years’ War and the catastrophic Anglo-French settlement of 1360. Background